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Peter Fredman, Jan Vidar Haukeland, Liisa Tyrväinen, Stian Stensland and Sandra Wall-Reinius

This chapter provides an overview of nature-based tourism in a Nordic context, primarily looking at Norway, Sweden and Finland. Most of the world see the Nordic countries as a region characterized by common ideas and values like openness, trust and sustainability. The landscape includes iconic attractions with fjords, mountains and glaciers, as well as extensive forest and freshwater resources. Much of the region also share long traditions of outdoor recreation practices (friluftsliv) including the Right of Public Access which influence opportunities for nature-based tourism. This chapter provides a description of key characteristic of the Nordic region as a nature-based tourist destination. It covers the transformation from extractive and natural resource-based economies to service-oriented businesses through an emerging nature-based tourism sector. This includes the demand and supply of nature-based tourism product, relationship with nature protection, public access to nature and how to govern impacts from nature-based tourism.

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Jan Vidar Haukeland, Peter Fredman, Dominik Siegrist, Liisa Tyrväinen, Kreg Lindberg and Yasmine M. Elmahdy

Nature-based tourism is a highly dynamic sector and subject to many trends and changes. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this chapter identifies broad global changes, so-called megatrends, that affect tourism in general and NBT in particular. Data from an online panel survey with experts from five countries who were asked to recognize the most prominent nature-based tourism trends in a 10 years’ perspective, is analyzed in the light of global drivers. The chapter concludes that issues related to sustainability, health and well-being, increased specialization and segmentation are the most noticeable and recurrent trends in nature-based tourism today.