Lin Ye and Guangming Zhang
Xinhui Yang and Lin Ye
With rapid urbanisation and economic development in China, the different levels of Chinese government were facing a series of ‘urban diseases’, such as overpopulation, traffic congestion, environmental pollution and resource shortages. Chinese national and local governments found that developing smart cities could help them to solve these ‘urban diseases’. The national government issued a series of supporting policies, regulations and evaluation index systems to promote the development of smart cities. In this chapter, we take the smart transportation system in the Sino-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park (SSSIP) as our case study and find that developing a smart transportation system can help improve the operation of urban public transport, facilitate citizens’ travel and alleviate urban traffic pressure, reduce operational costs and increase the efficiency for public transport enterprises, while also improving their management level.
Nan Lin, Xiaolan Ye and Walter M. Ensel
Current literature on social support identifies social structure as a source of distress. However, past efforts tend to operationalize structure in terms of demographic characteristics. The present paper argues that structure should be conceived of as participation and involvement in community and social relations. Structure may include community ties, social networks and intimate ties. We hypothesize that the three elements represent the outer layer (belongingness), the intermediary layer (bonding), and the inner layer (binding) of social relations and should exhibit differentiated effects on mental health. We further hypothesize that these structural elements, in sequence, provide functional (i.e., instrumental-expressive, perceived-received, and routine-non-routine) supports which, in turn, prevent or protect against distress.