The academic community has expectations that research and publications will be based on ethical conduct; but, implementing publishing ethics is complicated. The assumption that both new and experienced scholars are competent to fulfill their responsibilities can be challenged. All dimensions including conducting research, authorship, reviewing, and working with journal editors and publishers involve ethical decisions that can include gray areas. There are specific issues such as plagiarism, conflicts of interest, human subjects, and manipulation of data to obtain desired results. The Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE) provides cases on all of these issues where advice is rendered based on concerns or conflicts. For most publishers and editors, COPE is the gold standard on publishing ethics.