Relations between China and North Korea have gone through two distinct phases: from 2011 to 2018 relations were cool, characterized by a limited engagement of diplomatic personnel, an absence of high-level meetings, and the continued implementation of UN sanctions; in March 2018, however, there was a dramatic turning point, and from this point to the time of writing, relations have drastically improved. Kim Jong-un has visited China on multiple occasions and engaged in high-level meetings; there have been visits of Chinese personnel to North Korea and increased trade across the border into North Korea. This chapter surveys the historic relationship between China and North Korea, making the argument that contrary to popular and largely Western assumptions, the relationship has never been straightforward. Instead, it has been punctuated with periods of closeness and periods of greater estrangement. Understanding this history, and especially its ebbs and flows, is vital in seeking to understand China’s policy preferences, but also in developing strategies to respond to the security challenges emanating from North Korea.
Ming Chen and Xiaohai Liu
Bad faith trademark filings are a serious problem in China. During the fourth revision of the Chinese Trademark Law in 2019, bad faith filings without the intention to use the trademark was added as an absolute ground, with the aim that the Chinese Trademark Law can cope with the bad faith filings problem more effectively. Nevertheless, compared with the EU trademark system, the bad faith filing in the Chinese Trademark Law is not an absolute autonomous ground. Different kinds of bad faith filings are regulated by different clauses respectively. Some trademarks filed in bad faith can only be dealt with by relative grounds and cannot be invalidated after five years of their registrations. In order to deter malicious registration, bad faith filings per se should be introduced into the Chinese Trademark Law as an autonomous absolute ground. Trademarks filed in bad faith should be invalidated at any time.
Kam-Ming Wan, Shi-Jun Liu and Hsihui Chang
Ming Wei, Yan Liu, Thomas Sigler and Jonathan Corcoran
The emergence of passenger tracking technologies and big data have heralded a new generation of transport studies. In this chapter, we align to this new generation by overviewing the research that has applied transit smart card data, followed by an empirical case developed to provide a better understanding how weather affects people’s travel patterns in cities. Set against a backdrop of climate change and rapid urbanisation, understanding the travel behaviours of individuals across entire urban transit networks in response to shifts in weather conditions are critical in order to inform the smart design of resilient transit infrastructure. (Re)designing such infrastructure in a way that embeds weather resiliency (to account for both current and future predicted weather patterns) is important to ensure public transit poses an attractive alternative to the private vehicles for urban residents to fulfil their daily mobility needs. We draw on the results of a modelling exercise in conjunction with research in this domain to reveal that adult ridership is affected most by precipitation, and that this effect persists across multiple modes as well as for off-peak and weekends. However, more mixed effects for the combinations of weather phenomena show that wet and windy, hot and rainy, and hot and windy conditions are also important predictors of transit ridership.