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Jane Addison, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Zhang Bao and Li Ping

As the primary grassland actor, the attitudes and perceptions of herders are crucial in determining grassland use and condition, and as such they are a powerful agent of change. This chapter examines what are meaningful livelihoods to herders, and the strategies they adopt to achieve these livelihoods. The link between the grassland environment and these livelihood strategies is also explored, as are the links between the institutional settings and macrodevelopments discussed in Chapter 2, and their livelihoods. The chapter concludes by identifying and discussing more livelihood focused environmental policies.

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Colin G. Brown, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Zhang Jing, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Qiao Guanghua and Zhang Bao

Markets are crucial in determining the livelihoods of herders and other grassland actors, and as a platform for influencing incentives of grassland actors. The chapter examines market integration and price transmission in key ruminant livestock and livestock product markets, including sheep and goat meat, beef, cashmere and wool, in China and Mongolia to indicate the extent to which prices convey accurate incentives to herders about consumer preferences and the efficiency of markets in space, time and form dimensions. Ruminant livestock and livestock product industry policies in Mongolia and China are also discussed for the extent to which they distort or influence these markets, and the extent to which they align with societal preferences. Improvements in the ruminant livestock marketing systems that may increase value per unit grazing pressure, critical to grassland management, are also discussed.

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Colin G. Brown, Qiao Guanghua, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Jane Addison, David Kemp, Han Guodong, Uvdal Gombosuren, Karl Behrendt, Jeff Bennett and Li Ping

The relative importance of grasslands to China and Mongolia and major issues facing these grasslands are described. The chapter highlights the rationale for the comparative analysis and interdisciplinary approach used in the book and how the approach is reflected in the structure of the book.

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Colin G. Brown, Jeff Bennett, Qiao Guanghua, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Jane Addison, Udval Gombosuren, David Kemp, Han Guodong, Karl Behrendt and Li Ping

Based on the understanding of the grassland ecology and of environmental, livestock production and market systems in Mongolia and China, and on an understanding of herder attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses, this chapter discusses how incentives can be strengthened to meet the objectives of improved grassland condition and herder livelihoods. The chapter draws on a typology of environmental policies to examine how the incentives can be strengthened and policies improved. For instance, the chapter draws on the empirical analysis in Chapter 7 to discuss the effectiveness of policy instruments such as livestock taxes or ecocompensation payments to reduce stocking rates, on Chapters 2 and 6 to discuss issues related to compliance and enforcement of grassland policies, and on Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 6 to discuss moral suasion efforts and instruments that alter herder property and grassland use rights. The comparative analysis of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia throughout the book is drawn on for additional insights on strengthening the incentives and formulating strategies.