The chapter brings together the concepts of ‘region’ and ‘citizenship’ under the common umbrella of multilevel citizenship theory. The objective is to demonstrate that in a world in which boundaries are relatively open and several political institutions compete for power, the definition of rights depends less on static national regimes and more on the interaction between governments situated at different territorial levels. At the subnational level, in particular, regional institutions affect the provision of rights that were traditionally connected to the idea of national citizenship. While this situation is already an empirical reality, its normative desirability is open to debate. Three dilemmas are outlined: representation versus government efficacy; innovation versus fragmentation of rights and duties; recognition versus separation.