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Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Jørgen Grønnegaard Christensen and Thomas Pallesen

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter argues that we need to understand the changing forms of public governance, organization and leadership and that such an understanding calls for the scrutiny and comparison of competing and co-existing public governance paradigms. The chapter discusses the rise of public administration policy that aims to transform and adjust the way the public sector is functioning, and delivers its outputs and outcomes. It defines the concept of public governance paradigms and provides a brief overview of the governance paradigms that are discussed in the subsequent chapters. Most importantly, the chapter introduces and explains the public governance diamonds that facilitate systematic comparison of different governance paradigms. The chapter concludes with a brief account of the content, target audience and usage of the book.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter gives a historical overview of the first governance paradigm and presents the logic behind it. Today, some researchers refer to this governance paradigm as Old Public Administration, but one of the insights in the chapter is that bureaucracy is still important in many public organizations. New paradigms have, however, challenged the separation of politics and administration and the hierarchical chain of command with strong centralized control and horizontal division of labour. Rule-based governance is still important in many contexts, and most countries hire public employees based on their merits. The chapter describes how the bureaucratic governance paradigm had different expressions in different countries, and it places bureaucracy in the public governance diamond. The emphasis on rules and hierarchical governance structures means that it scores very high in terms of centralized control.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter presents professional rule as a governance paradigm. When parts of the public sector were professionalized, the professions became important for public sector governance. Historically, professional rule has coexisted with bureaucracy, and it now coexists with the new governance paradigms. Professional rule gives autonomy to the members of occupations with specialized, theoretical knowledge and professional norms. This challenges the hierarchical chain of command, because professional rule is based on horizontal collegiality, and the (professional) leaders are considered as primus inter pares. If professional rule dominates, the loyalty of both employees and leaders with backgrounds in strong professions will primarily be to these professions and their professional associations rather than with the public organizations they work in. Given that professional norms play an important role as governance mechanism, this paradigm scores very high on the use of value articulation.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter presents the intellectual and historical roots of New Public Management and discusses the content of the paradigm in light of its use in different countries. It is argued that there are two principal aspects of NPM, namely marketization based on economic theory and managerialism based on management theory. Because of NPM’s neoliberalist heritage and radical break with the core beliefs of the welfare state and the tradition of bureaucracy and professional rule, the paradigm has been thoroughly scrutinized, heavily criticized and contested. The pros and cons and the empirical experience with NPM is presented and discussed. This is done partly by discussing NPM’s claim to universality. The profile of NPM is located within the public governance diamond with a distinct profile regarding the use of incentives and regarding the involvement of societal actors. This clear-cut profile, however, becomes a bit blurred when taking the dual aspects of the economic and the managerial aspects of NPM into account.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter presents the concept of the Neo-Weberian State, which is a concept that was first introduced by Pollitt and Bouckaert in their book on comparative public management reform. The Neo-Weberian State opens up for a return to more responsibility of the state and highlights the role played by civil servants in making reform work. At the same time, the Neo-Weberian State emphasizes the need for efficient and timely service to citizens. The Neo-Weberian State therefore does not totally dismiss performance management, but underlines that performance management should be carried out in a responsible manner. The chapter places the Neo-Weberian State in the public governance diamond and discusses if the Neo-Weberian State draws on too many sources for inspiration to become a fully coherent public governance paradigm, but the chapter also recognizes the concept’s focus on a return to the role of the state after years of fragmentation through another public governance paradigm, NPM.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter presents the concept of Digital Era Governance that was first introduced by Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margetts and their colleagues as a direct response to another public governance paradigm, NPM. Digital Era Governance highlights the role of digitalization in public service delivery and claims that digitalization has deeper implications for the public sector than was previously understood. Digital Era Governance consists of three elements in particular: re-integration of services, needs-based holism and digitalization. The chapter discusses the theoretical elements and the empirical penetration of digital services, and it places Digital Era Governance in the public governance diamond. The chapter also comments on the later developments of Big Data and the role of tech companies that the public sector is trying to regulate more.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter explains the background for the development of Public Value Management as a governance paradigm, provides a brief overview of different Public Value Management schools, and discusses Public Value Management vis-à-vis other public governance paradigms. It unravels the sources of inspiration that are traced back to the strategic management literature, and discusses the empirical resonance of the Public Value Management paradigm. A thorough account of its key governance ideas leads to a location of the Public Value Management paradigm in the public governance diamond. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the strengths, weaknesses and dilemmas of Public Value Management as a paradigm for public administration and governance.

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Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This chapter gives a thorough account of the new and emerging governance paradigm that in the literature is referred to as New Public Governance. The introduction explains the societal and political-administrative background for the rise of New Public Governance and discusses its similarities and differences vis-à-vis other governance paradigms. The next section discusses the sources of inspiration in theories of governance, network governance and collaborative innovation, identifies competing governance schools and tracks the empirical prevalence of New Public Governance. A discussion of the main governance ideas of New Public Governance and its aim to mobilize resources, enhance collaboration and stimulate innovation serves to place the paradigm in the public governance diamond. The chapter also considers the empirical results from governance, network and innovations research and discusses the advantages and drawbacks of New Public Governance as a paradigm for governing, organizing and leading public value production.