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Luca Zamparini

Chapter 3 aims at providing a brief review of the economics literature on air transport security by considering the various dimensions that have to be tackled in order to reach an optimal level of security procurement. The chapter emphasises the importance to consider that security does not only benefit air passengers, freight forwarders, airlines and the other economic actors that are directly involved in the aviation industry. It also generates positive externalities in the overall economic system. The chapter also discusses the assessment of risk in aviation security and analyses two different models that have been proposed in order to estimate the net benefits that are determined by the adoption of air transport security measures. Lastly, it considers the models that assess airport security screening. This appears to be the topic that has attracted the largest share of the relevant literature.

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Luca Zamparini

The chapter analyses two of the most important issues related to all economic systems: growth and competitiveness. The chapter considers the evolution of the EU GDP and of the EU GDP per capita since the inception of the first financial perspective, by displaying the average growth rates in the five periods that have been marked by financial perspectives (Multiannual Financial Frameworks). Moreover, it discusses the competitiveness of the EU and compares it with other world regions (i.e. US and Japan). The chapter also considers the degree of competitiveness in the various NUTS2 regions of the EU. Lastly, the role of the EU budget for growth and competitiveness, between the first financial perspective that covered the period between 1988 and 1992 and the MFF for the period between 2014 and 2020, is considered. Such analysis is carried out by displaying the historical development of the expenditure commitments of the EU Commission.

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Luca Zamparini

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Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini

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Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini

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Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini

Chapter 15 concludes the book. It is devoted to a consideration of the issues that have emerged in the two previous sections of the book. It begins by identifying the significance of various contextual issues that have shaped aviation security policy and the general challenges that remain to be tackled. It then turns its attention to a comparative analysis of the specific case studies in order to identify the similarities and differences in the policies that different states have adopted, the resources they have allocated, and their effectiveness. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the lessons that emerge and a consideration of what, if anything, can be done to enhance aviation security, nationally and globally, given not only the known existing threats but those that loom on the horizon as well.