The chapter analyses two of the most important issues related to all economic systems: growth and competitiveness. The chapter considers the evolution of the EU GDP and of the EU GDP per capita since the inception of the first financial perspective, by displaying the average growth rates in the five periods that have been marked by financial perspectives (Multiannual Financial Frameworks). Moreover, it discusses the competitiveness of the EU and compares it with other world regions (i.e. US and Japan). The chapter also considers the degree of competitiveness in the various NUTS2 regions of the EU. Lastly, the role of the EU budget for growth and competitiveness, between the first financial perspective that covered the period between 1988 and 1992 and the MFF for the period between 2014 and 2020, is considered. Such analysis is carried out by displaying the historical development of the expenditure commitments of the EU Commission.
Chapter 3 aims at providing a brief review of the economics literature on air transport security by considering the various dimensions that have to be tackled in order to reach an optimal level of security procurement. The chapter emphasises the importance to consider that security does not only benefit air passengers, freight forwarders, airlines and the other economic actors that are directly involved in the aviation industry. It also generates positive externalities in the overall economic system. The chapter also discusses the assessment of risk in aviation security and analyses two different models that have been proposed in order to estimate the net benefits that are determined by the adoption of air transport security measures. Lastly, it considers the models that assess airport security screening. This appears to be the topic that has attracted the largest share of the relevant literature.
Luca Talarico and Luca Zamparini
Luca Zamparini and Ubaldo Villani-Lubelli
The budget has constituted one of the most debated and important issues at the political and at the academic level since the inception of the European Economic Community and in the ensuing evolution to the European Community and to the European Union (EU). The changes in its structure and composition are then crucial elements to understanding of the historical and political developments of the European Union and of its legal and economic perspectives. Given that the EU budget is mainly composed of transfers from Member States to the Union, the political negotiation always begins in the Council, where the heads of state and government define the strategic directions of the Union and set the overall amounts of the programming period. Subsequently, the European Commission presents a proposal that is first approved by the European Parliament and then by the Council of the EU. The Lisbon Treaty aimed at reinforcing the role of the EU Parliament to make the discussion more democratic. In this way, the budget would become a fruitful dialogue between European institutions, which are stakeholders of different interest groups. The financial planning would then become a fundamental open space of political confrontation, despite the expected tensions between institutions.
Ubaldo Villani-Lubelli and Luca Zamparini
This book has provided a multidisciplinary analysis of the EU budget encompassing historical, political, legal and economic perspectives. As it was highlighted in the introduction, such a multidisciplinary approach has allowed to disentangle several topics for which single disciplines would not be able to provide a comprehensive evaluation. The contributions were carefully chosen in order to cover a wide spectrum of relevant themes characterizing the EU budget. Part 1 of the book (Historical and Political Profiles) has been identified given the consideration that there is a tight linkage between the evolution of the EU budget and the overall development of the European Union, especially in terms of integration among Member States. Part 2 (Legal and Economic Profiles) has been deemed necessary considering the ongoing debate on the need to reform the EU budget and of the trade-off between unity and flexibility. Moreover, legal and economic measures have a clear impact on the democratic legitimacy and on the political representation of the European Union.