This chapter deals with the peaceful settlement of watercourse disputes between riparian States. It begins by describing the codification of the relevant law in the field of dispute settlement: the 1966 Helsinki Rules. It then focuses on the work of the International Law Commission and its Special Rapporteurs, and on the negotiation of the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. This is followed by a subdivision on settlement clauses in international treaties, in particular in the 1997 Convention, and by an analysis of the judicial and arbitral practice on the subject: Lake Lanoux, Gab_ikovo-Nagymaros, Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay, and Kishenganga. The Chapter ends with a series of conclusions.
This chapter describes the evolution of the rules regarding prior notice to be given by States planning new or increased use of a watercourse to the other watercourse States: treaties, unilateral declarations and precedents. The chapter delineates the rules on prior notice in contemporary international law: Articles 11 to 19 of the 1997 Watercourse Convention; the requirement of environmental impact assessments; prior notice and the peaceful settlement of international watercourse disputes.