This chapter explores the political ecology of hunger discourses. Political ecology has a vital role to play in promoting critical understanding and critically informed praxis concerning hunger by way of four major contributions. First, it challenges neo-Malthusian and other mainstream approaches to defining world hunger. Second, political ecology constructs a history of the global development of food systems that increase poverty and ecological degradation in geographically and socially uneven ways. Third, it develops an urban political ecology addressing social inequality and racism around the emerging topics of urban agriculture and food. And finally, political ecology assesses the discursive relations of food, hunger, consumption and embodiment. Political ecology demonstrates that the eradication of hunger is a political and economic process tied to the counter-narratives of food sovereignty and food justice, which are dedicated to restructuring and transforming food systems across the geographic scale.