This chapter deals with multiple territorial identities and multilevel polities. Citizenship is conceptualized as a compound of collective attachments and a product of nested identities formed at the various contextual levels of citizens’ political attachments (supra-state, state, sub-state). It is viewed as a source for articulating political life in contemporary societies. Those processes associated with political modernity, such as modern state formation, nation-building and mass democratization are analysed as a background for subsequent discussions. The revival of multiple ethno-territorial identities can be regarded both as an increasing challenge to the centralist model of the unitary state and as a quest for the wider legitimating of territorial political institutions. Interdependence within multilevel polities and the re-scaling of governance in the global framework are further examined having the European context as a primary context of analysis and contrasting developments.