The importance of entrepreneurial self-efficacy for entrepreneurial action is well established. Extant research asserts that the motivation for female entrepreneurs differs from that for male entrepreneurs: women, as less confident than men, show a lower willingness to start a business. Despite these findings, the number of women entrepreneurs in general, and ‘mumpreneurs’ in particular, is rising worldwide. To understand the phenomenon better, the author explores two research questions: (1) Why are women prone to developing into entrepreneurs after becoming mothers? (2) Can motherhood be considered a springboard for women’s entrepreneurial action? To address these questions, the author builds on Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory and its assertion that mastery experience provides the strongest stimulus for action. She theorizes that giving birth and raising a child will have a positive effect on a woman’s confidence in general, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in particular. More specifically, by analyzing the types of skills and abilities that are required from parents when raising children, the nature of problems which are encountered, and the manner of experiences which parents go through in the process, this chapter suggests their similarity to the entrepreneurship context. Consequently, it is argued that positively experienced motherhood can act as a springboard for women’s confidence to start and run a new venture. As such, two important implications of the argument are developed. First, motherhood is potentially a source of rich experiences and skills; it is a resource, a practice and an identity. Second, women entrepreneurs are not a homogeneous group, and for policy-makers to provide effective tools for the respective subgroups, further clustering is required.
Magdalena Markowska and Friederike Welter
Entrepreneurial identity is emergent and develops through interaction with various actors. The previous identity literature has presumed that motives remain stable over time, yet as individuals mature their motivations and goals often change. This chapter investigates how entrepreneurs adapt their entrepreneurial self-stories to their changed goals. To achieve this we explore seven high-profile restaurateurs’ business lives and show how their stories have been reinvented over time. Three different narratives are employed to illustrate the entrepreneurs’ original career choices: dream follower, serendipitous craftsman and forced opportunist. By demonstrating how achievement motivation affects restauranteurs’ need to either belong or be distinct and thus their construction of their narrative entrepreneurial identity, our research enhances existing work on identity construction by highlighting the close relationship between restaurateurs’ career stage and their emphasis on either the need for belonging or the need for distinctiveness. To be more precise our research finds that while restaurateurs’ early identities centred on presenting themselves as chefs, their subsequent depictions are wrapped up in their social identity to a much great extent, representing the restauranteurs as whole rounded people rather limiting them to a particular role.