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Magnar Forbord and Rita Moseng Sivertsvik

Nature-based tourism (NBT) firms are commercial actors that meet the demand for experiences in nature by activating resources. In this process, interactions with other actors and stakeholders are important. In this chapter, we investigate NBT firms' interactions and identify outcomes of the interactions. The empirical basis comprises semi-structured interviews with managers of 24 NBT firms in three tourism areas in Norway. Our study reveals that interactions with other tourism firms, customers, local groups and organisations benefit product development and deliveries, customer relations, capability development, and network connections. However, interactions are costly in terms of time and resources. Managers must therefore consider the extent and the form of interaction. For example, the importance of interaction may vary with the phase of the business development and firm size. Local culture, business traditions and the existence of local tourism organisations also influence the significance and potentials for interactions.

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Stian Stensland, Magnar Forbord, Knut Fossgard and Kristin Løseth

This chapter examines characteristics of nature-based tourism firms based on data from a national survey in Norway. Through cluster analysis we identify three types of firms: 1) Guided activity firms; 2) Hospitality facilitators that combine accommodation with angling and hunting license and self-guided activities; and 3) Activity package firms that offer comprehensive packages with combinations of activities, accommodation, food, and transport. Although there are many different motivations to be in the business (sustainability, lifestyle, economy, etc.) within and across the firm types, profit and growth are not among the main motivations. Typically, many of the firms are small (1-3 employees) and seasonal, located in rural areas with several sources of income. Few firms plan to increase the number of staff. From a tourism development perspective, governmental support programs and industry advisors should be aware of these specificities of nature-based tourism firms and the diversity in products they offer.

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Kreg Lindberg, Magnar Forbord and Rita Moseng Sivertsvik

Adaptation to change is one of the greatest challenges facing society today, and community resilience is an important framework for understanding how communities thrive in the face of change. This chapter provides an overview of the contribution of nature-based tourism (specifically, NBT firms) to community resilience. This contribution can occur within or across multiple dimensions: 1) economic, such as enhancing sectoral and livelihood diversity, 2) social, such as enhancing social capital, social cohesion, and community infrastructure, and 3) environmental, such as enhancing public support for conservation and providing an incentive to maintain landscapes in an undeveloped state.