Magnus Gulbrandsen and Stig Slipersæter
Magnus Gulbrandsen and Taran Thune
This chapter discusses hybridity and hybrid organisations within research and innovation. Although this might represent a context in which hybrid organisations are prevalent, there have been few investigations and cases from research organisations, scientific work and science policy in the broader literature on hybrid organisations (Rainey and Bozeman, 2000; Gulbrandsen et al., 2015). Hybridity is not, however, a new concept in the literature on research organisations. It has been used to understand complex, contested and often temporary organisational set-ups that have often aimed to bring public research and development (R & D) closer to the needs and demands of industry and society. The emergence of new organisational structures that straddle established boundaries is partly related to internal developments within the scientific enterprise itself, where intellectual and organisational boundaries may be crossed in the pursuit and application of new knowledge (Gieryn, 1983). We can draw a distinction between two broad kinds of research organisation: universities and research institutes. We use the term ‘universities’ for higher education institutions – including specialised and regional colleges – that conduct research and teaching. Research institutes are organisations that have research and development as a main activity, whose funding is most often predominantly public, and which are not part of the higher education system. Formally, universities and institutes may be private (mostly nonprofit) or public but universities and research institutes have often defined themselves as part of a separate sector – the research and higher education sector, or academia – distinct from industry and also quite different in some respects from the public sector.
Tommy Clausen, Jan Fagerberg and Magnus Gulbrandsen
Local research units, this article argues, play a very important role for the scientific field they belong to, for example by mobilizing financial support, offering job opportunities, attracting talented recruits, and providing adequate training. Little is known, however, about such units, at least in the fields under study here, i.e., studies of innovation, entrepreneurship and related phenomina. This article focuses – with the help of a survey of 136 research units worldwide supplemented by a number of case-studies – on the factors that influence the extent to which local mobilization efforts succeed.
Einar Rasmussen, Paul Benneworth and Magnus Gulbrandsen
Some universities and departments constitute supportive environments for the creation of successful university spin-off firms (USOs). How universities support USOs has been frequently studied, but in this chapter we argue that it is difficult to transfer successful blueprints from one context to another without understanding why universities support USOs and what these firms need. We discuss the entrepreneurial competencies needed by USOs and the universities’ motivation to spend scarce resources on supporting USOs. We arrive at an understanding of a wider start-up incubation ecosystem (SUPIE) for USOs where universities provide complex services influenced by a variety of stakeholders. We outline the scope for future research and policy where USOs are understood as a stakeholder for the university, with relationships to a wider network of stakeholders, that together form a SUPIE.