Since the end of the Eritrean–Ethiopian border war (1998–2000) and Eritrea’s slip into open dictatorship, a mass exodus has come into being. Over time, the number of minors and young adults among these refugees has drastically increased. More and more often these new arrivals to neighboring countries and the global North originate from rural areas and lack formal education. The current situation of children and youth inside Eritrea and the emerging social problems during migration and after arrival cannot be understood without knowing Eritrea’s revolutionary history. This chapter provides ethnographic as well as historical insights and an academic overview.