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Susan Bisom-Rapp and Malcolm Sargeant

This chapter summarizes the disadvantage and discrimination that women can suffer during their working lives. The authors use their own model of lifetime discrimination and disadvantage to focus on those gender based and incremental disadvantage factors that lead to inequities in later life. These include issues relating to education and training, gender stereotyping and caregiving, as well as those related to pay inequality, occupational segregation, non-standard working and retirement. The authors draw upon resources to illustrate these issues in the USA and the UK/EU. Their aim is ultimately to show the inadequacy in the way that the law has been used to tackle these issues. They criticize the approach adopted by legal reformers as one of disjointed incrementalism. Governments have approached this issue incrementally and taken many initiatives to tackle individual issues, but, although improvements have happened, there still remains an unfairness and inequity which results in women in later life being less well placed than their male counterparts.