Rosemary Lyster and Manuel Peter Solis
Manuel Peter Samonte Solis
The debate between human rights and human needs offers interesting perspectives on the proposition to couch universal access to modern energy services in the language of rights. Essentially, this finds justification in the extensive intellectual breadth and moral structure of the theory of rights developed over the centuries. However, the language of needs provides a counterpart theory that asserts the centrality of basic human needs in establishing human rights. It also advances the view that satisfaction of human needs is a prerequisite to being human, and thus, arguably serves as the reason for being of governments. Along this line, it is suggested that the language of rights be abandoned in favour of the language of needs due to the instability, indeterminacy, reification and pragmatic disutility of rights. Accordingly, this chapter examines the merits and limits of the language of needs compared to the language of rights. It also investigates the feasibility of integrating needs-talk into rights-talk in the context of the challenge to achieving universal access to modern energy services. In the process, the implications of couching universal access to modern energy services in the language of rights are identified, including its potential to accommodate and articulate the significance of universal access to modern energy services within its moral and systematic fabric.
Edited by Ed Couzens, Tim Stephens, Manuel Solis, Saiful Karim and Cameron Holley
Ed Couzens, Tim Stephens, Katie Woolaston, Manuel Solis, Kate Owens, Saiful Karim, Cameron Holley and Evan Hamman
Edited by Ed Couzens, Tim Stephens, Evan Hamman, Cameron Holley, Saiful Karim, Kate Owens and Manuel Solis
José Tomás Ibarra, Antonia Barreau, Carla Marchant, Juan A. González, Manuel Oliva, Mario E. Donoso-Correa, Berea Antaki, Costanza Monterrubio-Solis and Fausto O. Sarmiento
There is a growing trend for inclusion of the food sovereignty dimension as a driving force of biodiversity conservation. This is particularly important when dealing with agrobiodiversity in the tropical and temperate Andes, whereby complex agricultural systems and domesticates have incorporated ethnographic overtones in food production and consumption. One segment of this new imperative relates to foodstuff associated with rituals or religious practices and community-based observance of heirloom varieties and recipes of Andean food staples. These foods include specialty corn staples, potato races, quinoa varieties, rare lupines, and a collection of tropical fruits, seeds and fibers, including plants and animals, as former elements of a continuous forest cover that has now been reduced to patches amidst the herbaceous matrix of the Páramo, Puna and the temperate highlands. We use the case study of mountain foodscapes of the tropical and temperate Andes to exemplify the emphasis that a food geographies narrative entails for the sustainability of vernacular culture and nature, making specific reference to field observations and research projects conducted in these regions. As global environmental change comes closer on the mountain development horizon, we argue for the stewardship of heirloom practices and the cultivation of respect and observance of Andean traditions with syncretic undertones found in historical and contemporary foodscapes of the tropical and temperate Andes. For this, we use the framework provided by montology, as a way to fuse Western science (WS) with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) via transdisciplinary applications in the complex socio-ecological systems of production landscapes as foodscapes.