Through trade policy the EU is a major international actor. It simultaneously seeks to extend economic liberalisation and EU preferences, including values, by leveraging its trade policy for foreign policy goals. This results in intense internal tensions in trade policy, which have been heightened by the politicisation of trade policy during the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations. This chapter focuses on the evolution of these interactions. Firstly, it introduces major institutional actors involved in trade policy and their respective powers over time. It explores various explanations of the outcomes of EU trade policy in the literature informed by their respective focus on institutions, the actors and ideas underlying trade policy, and the interplay amongst these. Finally, the chapter presents pressing challenges to both the practice and study of EU trade policy in the form of novel power constellations and increased activism around trade policy that are reshaping EU trade policy.
María A. García-Valiñas
Sangeeta Khorana and María García
Edited by Sangeeta Khorana and María García
Gillian G. Garcia and Maria J. Nieto
Sergio Nasarre-Aznar and Rosa Maria Garcia-Teruel
The present chapter examines the phenomenon of evictions and its relationship with homelessness in Spain from 2010–2017. The causes that have led to evictions are analysed, principally the lack of a functional diversified range of housing tenures and the negative consequences of the 2007 crisis that have led many households to overindebtedness, default, eviction and, in some cases, ultimately to homelessness. The chapter also covers the delayed response of the legislator to prevent, tackle and react to evictions primarily through transitory measures that have had limited success. The narrow scope of the ‘right to housing’ in Spain has contributed to this. Best practices and the need for continued development are also discussed. In addition, available data on evictions from mortgaged and rented property is provided for the period 2010–2015, which coexists with cases of home forced-removal such as dispossessions arising from divorces and domestic violence. Finally, the main causes for homelessness are analysed, and the relationship with evictions is outlined.