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Tommy Gärling and Margareta Friman

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Maria Börjesson, Margareta Friman and Masoud Fadaei

Since the turn of the century, the demand for public transport has increased by nearly 50 percent in Sweden. However, supply has increased faster than demand and the total cost has increased faster than supply, entailing increased subsidies and fares. This chapter summarizes lessons learned from the aggregate trends in Sweden, as well as experiences from some cities. Our analysis indicates that, while demand has increased substantially, the effect on car use is unclear. The occupancy rate has not been maintained outside the big cities. Comparing cities, we find that adopting a long-term and systematic focus on customer-oriented design and marketing, in combination with substantially increased supply, has achieved increased attractiveness and use, while a new super bus concept has only had a limited impact. We underscore that, when implementing public transport improvements, public transport authorities have a lot to gain from systematic data collection enabling evaluation against the objectives.