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Francesco Pagliacci and Margherita Russo

Disaster risk is a function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. These dimensions may show large heterogeneity also at a very local level. This work uses updated statistics on natural hazards (earthquake, landslide and flood hazards) at a municipality level in Italy in order to tackle the issue of multi-hazard. Through a cluster analysis and a Multi-Hazard Indicator it is possible to disentangle specific and geographically defined hazard patterns. Moreover, the analysis of both exposures and local vulnerabilities suggests that they tend to be linked with hazards. In this respect, Italian inner areas seem to face the most critical situation (and because of the lack of organisation infrastructures), and deserve proper attention. In particular, community resilience (as also promoted by the Sendai Framework) could be enhanced by a proper assessment of local hazards and vulnerabilities.

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Margherita Russo, Annalisa Caloffi, Federica Rossi and Riccardo Righi

Policymakers worldwide increasingly rely on the funding of innovation intermediaries in order to remedy failures in their innovation systems, including firms’ lack of information about sources of external knowledge and opportunities, lack of adequate competences and skills, lack of productive connections and the lack of formal and informal institutions in the system. To induce intermediaries to satisfactorily address the system failures they are called to confront, policymakers often make their funding conditional on their performance. Building on a case study of publicly funded innovation intermediaries in Tuscany (Italy), we identify several challenges in setting up appropriate performance-based incentives for intermediaries. These involve (i) failure to clearly articulate policy objectives in terms of system failures; (ii) failure to measure the achievement of all policy objectives; and (iii) failure to clearly link performance indicators with policy objectives. Based on the lessons learned from this case, we derive some implications for policy design.