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Maria Kousis, Angelos Loukakis, Maria Paschou and Christian Lahusen

Even though transnational solidarity organisations have a long history and cover a wide repertoire of activities, systematic, cross-national studies for periods of crises are rare. What are the timelines of citizens’ organised transnational solidarity across countries and movement fields? Which factors affect European solidarity activities across the disability, migration and unemployment fields? What are the obstacles and opportunities for transnational solidarity organisations during the recent global financial crisis and the 2015 refugee crisis for these three fields? Chapter 3 aims to answer these questions and illustrate the development and profile of citizens’ collective solidarity mobilisations beyond borders, in reaction to crises as well as to inadequate responses by the state. It draws on fresh primary data collected and analysed for transnational solidarity initiatives and organisations based on Action Organization Analysis of 2,408 Transnational Solidarity Organisations (TSOs), and an online survey sent to 1,108 TSO representatives. The analysis compares the situation in eight countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and the UK) and three issue-fields (disabilities, unemployment, and migration). Findings show that transnational solidarity has grown considerably in the recent period of growing societal challenges, is more local in its roots and is intricately linked to socio-political currents, the evolution of social movements, and to the context of crises.