Chapter 19 highlights the diversity in incubation mechanisms used in the region. This diversity is manifested in the form of public, private, partnerships with mixed organizational structures to support the creation and development of entrepreneurial initiatives, over the past several decades. Prior literature on incubation has predominantly paid attention to the North American and Western European experience with little or no mention of the developing economy contexts (e.g., Latin America, Asia, and Africa). Inspired by the academic discussion, this chapter aims to discuss the role of incubators & accelerators in the Latin-American entrepreneurial ecosystems. The author identifies several developmental patterns as well as discusses new challenges faced by the incubation industry. Several implications for academics, university managers, and policymakers emerge from these findings.
Maribel Guerrero and David Urbano
In order to identify shifts and trends in the entrepreneurial university literature over the past 25 years, we conduct a study involving data from the period 1993–2018, focusing on research about the role of universities in entrepreneurship and innovation published in the journals listed in the Web of Science dataset. Our findings indicate that entrepreneurial universities’ articles have a significant presence in relevant journals, legitimacy as well as a growing exchange among researchers studying the role of universities in entrepreneurship and innovation. The area of entrepreneurial universities is also showing a broader research conversation in multidisciplinary fields.
Maribel Guerrero and David Urbano
The World Wide Web has transformed primary university IT functions, but the digital economy is redefining the rules of the game in higher education. The aging phenomenon claims long-life training for developing digital competencies required in current workplaces. Nowadays, COVID-19 pandemic also represented an unprecedented challenge for education that affects more than 1.5 billion students that are no longer able to go to school physically. Moreover, the new students’ generations have born in an on-line era and demand always-on digital access, more profound and more flexible learning experience. Inspired by these trends, we discuss how entrepreneurial universities (e.g., organizations with an entrepreneurial and innovative orientation) are managing new digital trends for being competitive in both traditional and digital higher education market. A provocative discussion about the internal and external challenges of entrepreneurial universities, an extended research agenda, and several implications for multiple stakeholders emerged from this chapter.
Maribel Guerrero, David Urbano and Aidin Salamzadeh
Maribel Guerrero, David Urbano and James A. Cunningham
Given the complexity of university functions, previous studies have evidenced the economic impact of university teaching, research or entrepreneurial activities by adopting different theoretical approaches and methodologies. However, the natural role of universities in economic development is less well understood than is often presumed. According to the microeconomic foundation of endogenous economic theory, the objective of this exploratory study is to contribute to a better understanding of the regional economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities (teaching, research and entrepreneurial). Our proposed model was tested with a two-stage least square regression weighted by regions using data of 147 UK public universities located in 74 of the 139 NUTS-3 regions of the country. We found the measure of teaching is strongly correlated with economic development, while the correlation between research and entrepreneurship measures is much weaker.
Ademar Schmitz, Gertrudes A. Dandolini, João A. de Souza, Maribel Guerrero and David Urbano
Despite the increasing scientific literature on innovation and entrepreneurship in the academic setting, the literature is still fragmented and broadly conceptualized, requiring more systematic and holistic studies. Furthermore, few studies have been identified from the perspective of systemism, in which both individual agency and structure are involved in a given context. This chapter aims to explore innovation and entrepreneurship in the academic setting from the approach of complex systems. It tries to understand how innovation and entrepreneurship support universities to contribute to regional socio-economic development while preserving their own sustainability. Methodologically, an exploratory and descriptive multiple case study was conducted considering four universities in two different regions and countries: Catalonia in Spain (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, UAB; and University of Barcelona, UB) and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, PUC-RS; and University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS). Interviews, documents and direct observation were used as data sources. The main findings indicate a system composed of individuals and artefacts at a micro level and an academic and a management organization at macro-level. The systems structure is defined at individual, organization and interaction levels. Mechanisms are related to teaching, research, extension and management functions. The chapter makes both theoretical and practical contributions. From the conceptual point of view this chapter includes a unique discussion related to modelling universities as social systems in the context of the knowledge-based society from the perspective of complex systems. From the practical perspective, the chapter includes the fact that finding mechanisms not only allows an understanding of the system, but also the possibility to control it.