Marina van Geenhuizen and Qing Ye
This chapter investigates the conditions for mass-manufacturing in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in China since the early 2000s, specifically the cities’ role of ‘institutional entrepreneur’. China’s PV industry has grown tremendously thanks to a match between policy incentivization of local industry and rising global demand for sustainable energy. Several cities gained leadership in mass-manufacturing and this is illustrated in the chapter through case studies of two companies, Suntech Power and Yingli Green, in Wuxi and Baoding, respectively. In particular, Wuxi can be seen as an institutional innovator, as evidenced by its recruitment policy of Chinese talent from overseas and refined interaction with provincial and national policy in financial incentivization of domestic companies. Today, China leads in acceleration of adoption of solar energy in Europe and US, as it hosts about 70 per cent of global production of solar cells/panels. However, since around 2012, the industry has also seen restructuring to increase product quality and improve efficiency.
Mozhdeh Taheri and Marina van Geenhuizen
This chapter investigates the extent to which university spin-off firms in new medical technology reach the market and create job growth, for example, in support in care-providing, minimally invasive surgery, tissue engineering (organs), and information and communications technology (ICT)-supported diagnosis. The study draws on a small selective sample and employs rough-set analysis to identify preliminary causal patterns. One of the strongest influences seems the subsector indicating diversity in technical complexity (risk) and regulation (testing and approval), while management experience and access to venture capital also have a role. Furthermore, drawing on in-depth case study analysis, the preliminary conclusion is drawn that spin-offs in complex and risk-taking fields are able to survive in close research collaboration with the ‘mother’ university and/or academic hospital, and through this link, with universities and hospitals in global networks. Others that lack such relationship tend to be much more vulnerable, particularly due to healthcare budget constraints and firm-specific lack of management experience.
Sander Faber and Marina van Geenhuizen
This chapter investigates adoption of medical technology in the form of eHealth solutions in hospitals. A model of organizational eHealth adoption is developed and empirically explored using a survey among hospitals in cities in the Netherlands and structural equation modelling (SEM). Technology adoption is seen as a process in different stages, revealing a high level of interest (about 60 per cent of hospitals) but very limited actual adoption (ranging from 6 per cent to 23 per cent). Furthermore, adoption levels tend to be higher in larger cities, and this is confirmed by significant direct influence of urban size on eHealth adoption. Other important factors tend to be organizational readiness and top management of hospitals, but these are not affected by urban size. The results leave the question open as to what makes hospitals in large cities more often adopt new technology if this is not mediated by hospital size and other organizational characteristics.
Marina van Geenhuizen and Nick Guldemond
This chapter studies living labs as a methodology of user-centric innovation. The focus is on sustainability in healthcare and increasing efficiency, affordability and inclusiveness. The real-life environments are residential homes for elderly people, hospitals and a shopping mall, the latter as an example of increasing accessibility for wheelchairs. The chapter aims to identify critical factors in the performance of living labs, drawing on literature and in-depth case studies in Eindhoven and Maastricht (Netherlands), Copenhagen (Denmark) and Montreal (Canada). Important critical factors are: early involvement of users, including feedback from them, and sufficient involvement of a wider network of stakeholders with the required expertise/input. An appropriate selection of promising inventions is also important. A preliminary analysis of network building through living labs found a trend for both local and global networking, with an emphasis on the latter. These findings touch on a leadership challenge for local governments, namely as a ‘connector’ between different local/ regional organizations.