The concept bottom-linked in the context of social innovation recognizes not only the centrality of social initiatives taken by those immediately concerned with specific social needs, but also the need for the support of institutions that enable and sustain such initiatives through sound, regulated and lasting practices (Pradel et al., 2013). The bottom-linked approach is a manifestation of two types of governance practices that occur among social actors: on the one hand the internal governance mechanisms within their organization, on the other the external governance mechanisms they establish with other organizations and with institutions. If an agreement of cooperation is reached the support from institution(s) to specific project(s) may help the innovation to become more sustainable as demonstrated in the majority of studies (Moulaert et al., 2013). This chapter briefly expands an approach already envisaged by Frank Moulaert (2000) in the Integrated Area Development Approach.
Marisol García and Marc Pradel
Peter Brokking, Marisol García, Dina Vaiou and Serena Vicari Haddock
The chapter addresses the impact of market-oriented reforms, the financial crisis of 2008 and the resulting austerity measures on housing and neighbourhood services within the already changing trajectories of welfare states. We discuss the shifting boundaries of social groups whose needs remain unanswered and the resulting patterns of exclusion. The focus of the chapter then shifts to the response to these changes, in the form of local initiatives that attempt to address these needs and to further social inclusion. These initiatives highlight the increasingly important role of neighbourhoods and civil society actors in filling the gaps when the welfare state no longer provides basic services or when households can no longer afford to pay for services at market prices. In the final section, challenges for governance are identified and discussed. They include the definition of flexible arrangements between civil society, local public institutions and market actors and a new role of the central state in supporting the social right of access to housing.