This chapter shows examples of social innovation to overcome social exclusion in the industrial city of Zaragoza as an illustration of other cases of cities in southern Europe. It begins by contextualising the multi-level governance model and the local welfare model in which social innovation occurs. The chapter then emphasises the capacity of the local administration, the private sector and civil society to arrive at instances of horizontal consensus. This governance model takes into account the demands of neighbourhood communities since the 1970s. The analysis then focuses on social innovation initiatives and projects in the areas of employment, participation and resources. We look at projects with a solid bottom-linked relationship with the various departments of the local welfare administration, as well as at new projects that offer alternative avenues for cooperation with the public sector.
Marisol García Cabeza and Lídia García Ferrando
Marisol García and Marc Pradel
The concept bottom-linked in the context of social innovation recognizes not only the centrality of social initiatives taken by those immediately concerned with specific social needs, but also the need for the support of institutions that enable and sustain such initiatives through sound, regulated and lasting practices (Pradel et al., 2013). The bottom-linked approach is a manifestation of two types of governance practices that occur among social actors: on the one hand the internal governance mechanisms within their organization, on the other the external governance mechanisms they establish with other organizations and with institutions. If an agreement of cooperation is reached the support from institution(s) to specific project(s) may help the innovation to become more sustainable as demonstrated in the majority of studies (Moulaert et al., 2013). This chapter briefly expands an approach already envisaged by Frank Moulaert (2000) in the Integrated Area Development Approach.
Peter Brokking, Marisol García, Dina Vaiou and Serena Vicari Haddock
The chapter addresses the impact of market-oriented reforms, the financial crisis of 2008 and the resulting austerity measures on housing and neighbourhood services within the already changing trajectories of welfare states. We discuss the shifting boundaries of social groups whose needs remain unanswered and the resulting patterns of exclusion. The focus of the chapter then shifts to the response to these changes, in the form of local initiatives that attempt to address these needs and to further social inclusion. These initiatives highlight the increasingly important role of neighbourhoods and civil society actors in filling the gaps when the welfare state no longer provides basic services or when households can no longer afford to pay for services at market prices. In the final section, challenges for governance are identified and discussed. They include the definition of flexible arrangements between civil society, local public institutions and market actors and a new role of the central state in supporting the social right of access to housing.
Collective Action, Social Learning and Transdisciplinary Research
Marc Pradel Miquel, Marisol García Cabeza and Santiago Eizaguirre Anglada
Edited by Marc Pradel-Miquel, Ana B. Cano-Hila and Marisol García Cabeza
Marisol García Cabeza, Ana Belén Cano-Hila and Marc Pradel-Miquel
This introductory chapter provides the analytical framework to explain social innovation in Spanish cities as an illustration of similar practices in other Southern European cities. It sets the scene for the empirical analysis of the role of civil society and social movements in local governance of social innovation. Southern European countries share key characteristics of their local welfare systems and have similar institutional contexts in which social innovation gets incorporated in their cities. The austerity programmes after the 2008 crisis negatively affected social policy in these countries. The new local governance of policies against social exclusion integrated new actors from civil society. Austerity occasioned a new wave of social movements of citizens who came up with new social and political perspectives to address social problems. The analyses show the relevance of bottom-linked innovation in governance.