The so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring has become a major phenomenon in all world regions. The metaphor of the shadow is used because much of the tutoring curriculum mimics that in regular schooling: as the curriculum changes in the schools, so it changes in the shadow. This chapter outlines the scale of shadow education in a range of countries, and considers the core factors shaping demand and supply. Subsequent sections focus on costs and effectiveness. Although shadow education consumes large portions of household budgets as well as much time from tutors, students and parents, research from an economic perspective is underdeveloped.
Junyan Liu and Mark Bray
Mark Bray and Peter Waring
In this chapter the authors explore recent advances in Labour Regulation Theory. This exposition of modern theoretical developments follows a brief history of efforts to explain the processes by which the rules of work are determined and the substantive character of the rules themselves. The authors begin by tracing the evolution of bargaining structures theory, and discuss how our own contributed concepts of ‘complexity’ and ‘congruence’ help to address several shortcomings in the traditional theory. They also consider the way in which Labour Regulation Theory has been enriched through research on the influence of institutional and market forces on the shape of labour regulation as well as the contributions of the socio-legal theorists. The chapter, while pointing to the growing explanatory power of Labour Regulation Theory, also contemplates how it might be further enhanced in future.