The promise of democracy in South Africa has been subverted by the effective criminalisation of parts of the South Africa state. While much of the recent media attention focussed on the recent (and often breathtaking) goings-on around the presidency of Jacob Zuma, the linkages between criminal actors and politics arein fact a longer-term outcome of the intertwining of crime and politics which began before the transition to democracy, and continued after 1994. These linkages, which have occurred at multiple points in the country’s political economy, but crucially in the security establishment itself, have strengthened not only in a context of increasingly entrenched corruption and systems of political patronage, but also where the nascent institutions of democratic criminal justice have been critically weakened to protect its most senior perpetrators. The criminalisation of the state has been opposed by a loose coalition of honest civil servants, independent journalists, citizen action groups, opposition political parties and, most crucially, the judiciary. This has been at great cost to both institutions and individuals. The contestation around what is widely termed ‘state capture’ – and on occasion the ‘mafia state’ – continues under a new President who has sort to roll back its impact against a strong and criminalised set of interests both inside and outside of the state.
Stephen Rainey, Bernd Carsten Stahl, Mark Shaw and Michael Reinsborough
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is a key concept in current discourses concerning research governance and policy. The practice of ethics management in the European Union (EU) Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) Flagship Human Brain Project (HBP) utilises a concept of meta-responsibility to further RRI. This chapter explains the theory and practice of meta-responsibility to demonstrate RRI in practice in the HBP. As a Flagship European Commission research project, the HBP represents a particular opportunity to espouse the best aspirations of the European research area. In this chapter, particular focus is given to RRI as it is theorised and implemented within the HBP. This chapter focuses specifically on the role and practice of ethics management in the RRI efforts of the HBP. However, it presents a truncated and incomplete view. This is unavoidable, given the complex nature of the area – the map is not the territory. Other perspectives are possible, from which other aspects of RRI, and of the HBP, might gain or lose emphasis. Nevertheless, here we present an ethics management perspective on, and role in, RRI so far in the HBP.