This chapter reviews the interests that may be served and the benefits that may accrue from training and development for different stakeholders. It often appears that training and development serve common interests and deliver benefits for all. Employees, citizens, employers, representative bodies (such as unions) and the state all have an interest in training and development and the acquisition and deployment of skills. Heavily influenced by the tenets of human capital theory, policy discourse largely assumes that different parties will be willing to invest in training and development for clearly derived gains. For the state, human capital formation contributes to economic growth, prosperity, social inclusion and community cohesion. For employers, investment in training contributes to the efficiency, adaptability and commitment of their human resources and, ultimately, an organisation’s competitive position. For individuals, training, learning and the acquisition of skills can improve job prospects, career progression and lifetime earnings. These assumptions are interrogated.
Mark Stuart and Miguel Martínez Lucio
Ioulia Bessa, Chris Forde and Mark Stuart
Greg Hearn, Stuart Cunningham, Marion McCutcheon and Mark David Ryan
Is the creative economy only an urban phenomenon? Creative employment data and Gross Regional Productivity (GRP) were analysed for 487 local government areas (LGAs) in Australia. Total creative employment correlates strongly with GRP for all categories of creative occupation. Creative intensity – that is, the number of creatives relative to total employment – increases with size of GRP, except in the visual arts. However, there are differences in regions varying according to population, GRP and remoteness. The creative intensity of digital and marketing occupations correlates with GRP across all regions, excluding very remote areas. Creative intensity of media, art and architecture occupations has a more diverse relationship with GRP across Australia. These empirical results are exemplified via qualitative case studies of three diverse LGAs. In the future, there may be surprising niche opportunities for non-urban creative work, but in general, growing LGAs are more prospective.