The social network approach provides both the theory and methodology for a detailed examination of the characteristics of the social environment of leadership in an organizational context. This chapter presents the central characteristics of the social network approach and examines how they relate to leadership research. Thereafter, it considers the methodology of the social network approach, including the research design, sampling and data collection methods, and central measures of networks for use in data analysis. It also provides examples from leadership research that has capitalized on social network theory and methodology. Finally, it presents a detailed research example that includes the collection of network data and application of network analysis to understand the characteristics of social networks.