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Markus Lederer

This chapter explores how contemporary scholarship evaluates global climate change governance. It briefly describes how the literature on global governance of climate change evolved and why its overly optimistic outlook can no longer be upheld. The chapter will also provide an overview of current perspectives, differentiating between those who see the effective and legitimate global governance of climate change as a ‘glass half full,’ those who are agnostic about it, and those who argue that the glass is almost empty. Finally, the conclusion will provide possible scenarios as to where the real world of global governance of climate change might move and what follows for academic debate.

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Markus Lederer, Linda Wallbott and Frauke Urban

This chapter presents a valuable framework for analysing green transformations in developing economies using two case studies from the so-called Global South: Costa Rica and Vietnam. Central lessons for other countries are that Costa Rica reversed its pathway of deforestation by reforesting the land and then addressing criticisms of its development by generating more genuinely green growth. Vietnam has previously focused on post-conflict restoration and economic development and has now turned towards green transformations, announcing an ambitious green growth strategy. The chapter shows that these countries – rather than having chosen easy pathways – made difficult choices that went against powerful vested interest groups within the country. This makes the decisions (and possibly the experiences) particularly relevant to other (smaller) countries considering taking a pathway involving green transformation.