This chapter deals with the future of EU citizenship, which is uncertain. There is neither a blueprint nor a strategic plan for fostering the further development of EU citizenship and for breaking down the barriers to the exercising of citizenship rights. At the same time, policy makers and decision makers are not left empty handed. Analysing different imaginable scenarios on the future of the EU and on EU citizenship broadens perspectives on which actors could use which repertoires of action that may protect, foster or stimulate the development of EU citizenship. In this chapter four imaginable future scenarios are presented. These scenarios reflect the uncertainties of whether Europe and the EU will develop in one or another direction. It addresses core questions on what will happen with EU citizenship in these alternative conceivable futures, the room for manoeuvre, and the actors who can or should cope with it.
Wieger Bakker and Marlot van der Kolk
Wieger Bakker, Marlot van der Kolk and Viktor Koska
Chapter 7 by Wieger Bakker, Marlot van der Kolk and Viktor Koska deals with education for a civic culture in the European Union. Various scholars have stressed that political participation requires the backing of a political culture, a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, perceptions and a sense of ‘identity, an expression of one’s membership in a political community’. This seems to be problematic in Europe. Its nation states, however, have over time developed vested traditions that promote citizenship, by socializing and educating people in a ‘civic culture’. This chapter compares different traditions in educating for citizenship in a selection of (old and new) member states of the European Union and shows how such an approach and practice could contribute to or hinder the development of a European civic culture.