Martin Heidenreich and Deborah Rice
Martin Heidenreich and Deborah Rice
Chapter 2 (authored by Martin Heidenreich and Deborah Rice) lays the analytical groundwork for the empirical chapters in the book. The chapter focuses on the organizational challenges associated with the integrated delivery of employment and social services at the local level, and discusses how the fragmentation of services between the local, regional, national and European level (vertical fragmentation), between public actors, private companies and third-sector organizations, and between policy areas such as employment, social assistance, family, health, housing (horizontal fragmentation) manifests itself and can be overcome (e.g. via central reorganization, one-stop shops or decentralized collaboration in the case of horizontal fragmentation, or by the decentralization of competencies or local discretion in the case of vertical fragmentation). Also a broad overview of multilevel, multidimensional and multi-stakeholder activation governance arrangements in the six European countries studied in this book (the UK, Italy, Sweden, Germany, Poland and France) is given. The final part of Chapter 2 turns to inner-organizational factors that either enable or hinder the provision of coordinated and individualized employment and social services at street level, namely service budgets and staff resources, client-processing procedures and categorization tools, and professional norms.
Active Inclusion and Challenges for Local Welfare Governance
Edited by Martin Heidenreich and Deborah Rice
A central goal of European activation policies is to integrate social and employment policies into a coherent active inclusion approach that fosters social cohesion and enhances the employment chances of vulnerable groups. This requires a reorganisation of social and employment services especially at the local level. On the basis of empirical studies of six European welfare states, this book explores how different institutional contexts influence localised service delivery and how local actors deal with the associated coordination challenges.
Martin Heidenreich and Jannika Mattes
Jannika Mattes and Martin Heidenreich
Edited by Martin Heidenreich
Multinational companies are crucial actors in a global knowledge-based economy, combining the advantages of global and locally coordinated production and innovation strategies with specific regional and national factors. This book questions how MNCs can best exploit institutionally embedded knowledge, explores the utilization of external institutionally embedded knowledge in corporate innovation processes, and addresses the challenges of embeddedness.
In this introductory chapter, Martin Heidenreich distinguishes three different forms of conceiving the Europeanization of social inequalities: firstly, due to the growing importance of Europe, national patterns of inequality are analysed and compared in a European context (international perspective); secondly, the dynamics of social inequalities in Europe are explained by an increasingly supranational regulation of the European economies and societies; and, thirdly, Europe might be characterized by the increasingly transnational standards of equality and frames of reference. Empirically, the rearrangement of social inequalities in the EU and especially in the eurozone can be summarized on the basis of the following chapters in five theses: (1) polarization of European labour markets; (2) restructuring of the European centre-periphery relations due to the relative decline of Southern Europe and the continuing convergence of Eastern and Western Europe; (3) increasing national employment, income and health inequalities; (4) subjective Europeanization of inequalities; and (5) the impact of the EU on social inequalities. The outcome is a double dualization of social inequalities both between different European countries and between different social groups. On the one hand, the eurozone crisis has contributed to an increasing dualization of life chances, especially between Northern and Southern European. On the other hand, life chances are diverging between younger and older, migrant and native, male and female and high- and low-skilled employees.