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Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

Social rights in the EU continue to be primarily determined by decisions at the nation-state level. Despite the discourse of a European Social Model, Member States pursue very different approaches to social rights, leading to highly divergent outcomes. This chapter analyses social rights at three levels: (1) social rights at the level of the European Union; (2) social rights at the level of Member States; and (3) the social rights of EU mobile and EU migrant citizens. It will be argued that social rights at the EU level are only weakly developed compared to economic rights. Moreover, social rights at the level of the Member State continue to be mainly determined by domestic factors, although austerity policies, promoted by EU institutions, had a negative impact on social rights in countries severely hit by the economic and subsequent sovereign-debt crisis. Social rights of EU migrant citizens remain primarily focused on workers, while rights for economically inactive EU migrant citizens continue to be severely restricted within the first five years of residence.

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Edited by Frans Pennings and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

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Edited by Frans Pennings and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

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Martin Seeleib-Kaiser and Frans Pennings

Social rights are highly contested and historically were closely linked to the establishment of nation states. Freedom of movement and the introduction of EU citizenship have eroded the sovereignty of EU Member States in limiting access to social rights to their citizens. In this chapter we introduce the main issues associated with intra-EU migration and social rights as well as provide an overview of the book.

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Martin Seeleib-Kaiser and Frans Pennings

This chapter draws conclusions from these various dimensions and highlights that the dimension of social rights as part of EU citizenship has not been stable over the years.

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EU Citizenship and Social Rights

Entitlements and Impediments to Accessing Welfare

Edited by Frans Pennings and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

In the 1990s, the Maastricht Treaty introduced the right to free movement for EU citizens. In practice, however, there are substantial barriers to making use of this right, particularly to integration and to accessing the social and welfare rights available. This is particularly true when it comes to accessing social rights, such as social assistance, housing benefit, study grants and health care. This book provides a detailed description and thorough analysis of these barriers, in both law and practice.
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Cecilia Bruzelius and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

This chapter analyses the social rights of EU migrant citizens. It situates EU citizenship and social rights in relation to the concept of social citizenship and provides an overview of the historical development of the legal framework that underpins EU citizenship and associated social rights. These developments are subsequently contextualized taking into account the development of intra-European migration and EU migrant citizens’ eligibility and access to social rights. The chapter concludes by highlighting the continued stratified nature of social citizenship within the EU even after the formal introduction of EU citizenship.

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Martin Seeleib-Kaiser and Thees F. Spreckelsen

This chapter first investigates whether a ‘Nordic’ model exists with regard to youth labour market outsiderness, if compared to labour market outcomes in Britain and Germany. Second, the chapter examines how differences of youth labour market outsiderness in the Nordic countries, Germany and Britain are compounded by different types of outsiderness and gender differences. The authors analyse distributions of outsiders, their educational attainment, and time since having left school across countries defined by three welfare and education regimes. The analyses demonstrate that youth outsiderness in all countries affects women more than men. There seems to be no consistent Nordic regime when it comes to youth labour market outsiderness. Clear differences emerged when looking at the countries individually. By contrast, dualization characterizes Britain and Germany, which is consistent with previous research and theoretical expectations.

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Cecilia Bruzelius, Catherine Jacqueson and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

The authors analyse the development of EU social policy, highlighting the limited role of the EU and the dominant role of Member States in determining social rights and outcomes. The chapter provides the context for the subsequent analyses.

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Rosa Daiger von Gleichen and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

Family policies within the OECD world have undergone significant transformations. While family allowances, parental leave and childcare continue to vary significantly from country to country, policy change has followed a common trajectory, moving away from support for the male breadwinner and towards the dual-earner household and to reconcile tensions between work and family. The chapter identifies early adopters and laggards of policy change among OECD countries as well as the ‘drivers’ leading to change. It shows that the early adopters in Scandinavia were largely driven by the normative aim for gender equality, while in laggard countries more instrumental reasoning, such as improving the use of human capital through increased female employment or addressing demographic challenges, was employed. Methodologically, the chapter is based on an analysis of secondary literature as well as various data sets.