This chapter accounts for the geographies of military-humanitarianism: the spaces through which it operates and, in turn, changes; and the spatial transformations it has undergone in the Mediterranean ‘of’ migrants. Building on the analysis of two recent Mediterranean scenes – the criminalization of acts of solidarity through military-humanitarianism and the European Union warfare against migrant smuggling networks – the authors study military-humanitarianism as a spatial process, where neither the ‘military’ nor the ‘humanitarian’ predicaments of this mode of intervention are taken at face value. The chapter develops an approach to the study of military-humanitarianism as a flexible technology for migration control. The authors conclude by sketching a critical geography research agenda on military-humanitarianism that would take into account the different forms of capitalisation over migrants that are at stake in the humanitarian and military government of refugees.
Martina Tazzioli and Glenda Garelli
This chapter mobilizes a counter-mapping approach with respect to the normative geographies of the asylum system building on some examples of how refugees have been governed in the Mediterranean region in the past few years. It explores firstly what ‘counter’ means in the context of a critical cartography of migration, and unpacks the main theoretical and political tenets such a methodological perspective mobilizes against. The author’s take on counter-mapping relies on what they call a reflexive cartography, that is, an analysis that does not consist only in a cartographic practice, but that, rather, interrogates the predicaments and the implications of mapping migration. The authors also refer to cartographic experimentations that trouble the spatial and temporal fixes of a state-based gaze on migration. In sum, counter-mapping as a method and counter-mapping as a cartographic experimentation intertwine as part of the authors’ critical account of the visualizations of migration and refugee issues.