In this chapter the authors compare the health care systems of England and the Netherlands with respect to contracting, accountability frameworks and the duty to provide care and access to health care. The objectives of contracting are different in these two countries. While in the Netherlands contracting is envisaged to promote efficiency and quality, contracting in England appears to set a minimum requirement. Under the Dutch system, the insurer must fulfill its duty to provide care. In England it is difficult to hold any party accountable for ensuring that patients receive necessary care. Various types of co-payments and out-of-pocket charges occur in both England and the Netherlands. In both countries personal care budgets exist to put patients in charge of their own budgets.
Mary Guy and Wolf Sauter
Mary Guy and Wolf Sauter lay out the scope and historical development of EU Health Law and Policy. The analysis reveals three broad periods of development: up to 1992, when focusing on the four freedoms (goods, services, workers and capital) led to incremental legislative action on health; 1992–2007, from the adoption of an explicit health competence at an integrationist high-point in the early 1990s to the Lisbon Treaty in 2007; and 2007 onwards, where integration continues despite political malaise and an economic downturn. Guy and Sauter note that EU Health Law and Policy has moved beyond a ‘patchwork’ or ‘interface’ approach to a more coherent legal and policy domain, and also a subject for academic study in its own right.
Mary E. Guy and Meredith A. Newman
Mary E. Guy and Seung-Bum Yang
This chapter deals with multi-nation studies that illuminate both the influence of national context and the enduring characteristics that prevail across national borders. This chapter describes how to design a multi-national empirical study and provides as example a twelve-nation comparison of how public servants experience emotional labor in their daily jobs. A range of issues are discussed, including building the research team, survey development, translation, dealing with problems of measurement invariance, and interpreting findings. The example demonstrates how structural equation modeling can be used to compare findings across countries when only partial measurement invariance is achieved. Findings enhance understanding of how context shapes and sculpts the citizen – state encounter around the globe. With the increase in international exchanges, transnational administration, and international civil servants, multi-nation studies advance the public administration canon and respond to the need for information on a global scale.