In this chapter, I review the literature on U.S. federal climate policymaking to explore the dynamics of U.S. climate policy conflict. While some U.S. political actors have championed outright climate skepticism, many others have actively worked to mitigate the risks of dangerous, human-caused climate change. Political scientists have a crucial role to play in studying the climate policy conflict that results. Only by understanding the actors, interests, and institutions that shape federal climate policymaking can we specify the conditions under which a robust policy response to the climate crisis can emerge. Here, I outline the actors, interests, and institutions that shape federal policymaking. Next, I offer a synoptic overview of key episodes of federal climate policy conflict. Finally, I reflect on critical research questions that political scientists have yet to answer about U.S. climate policy debates.
Jeff Feng, Matto Mildenberger and Leah C. Stokes
Over the past decade, thousands of community environmental leaders and indigenous land rights activists have been assassinated. There is an urgent need for the research community to document the full scale, logic, and effects of these human rights violations. In this chapter, we first explore diverse literatures on ecological human rights, indigenous environmental justice, and violence. We then outline our research priorities for future work on this topic: first, new work to study the meso-level logic of violence against environmental activists; second, the development of new datasets to document the scope of this violence; and third, a sustained focus on intersectional analyses of the impact of this violence, particularly on women.