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Melissa S. Cardon and Ibraiz Tarique

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Dean A. Shepherd and Melissa S. Cardon

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 1, we introduce the main purpose of the book, which is to provide a critical review of the knowledge accumulated to date concerning passion in entrepreneurship, noting where there are discrepancies or debates concerning conceptual definitions, levels or focus of analysis, and methodological approaches, as well as empirical findings. We preview the focus of each chapter in the book to help orient readers.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 2 we explore two major conceptualizations of passion including one that says entrepreneurial passion (EP) involves “consciously accessible, intense positive feelings experienced by engagement in entrepreneurial activities associated with roles that are meaningful and salient to the self-identity of the entrepreneur” (Cardon, et al., 2009, p. 519). We then contrast that with the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) and its two fundamental constructs of harmonious and obsessive passion developed by Robert Vallerand and colleagues (e.g., Vallerand, et al., 2003). We talk about the distinctions among these conceptualizations, as well as the important commonalities across them, and how they have both been used to study the passion of entrepreneurs. We also contrast passion from related constructs such as intrinsic motivation and positive affect.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 3, we expand on the fundamental agreements in the literature concerning the core features of passion that we introduce in Chapter 2 – that passion has a specific object and can vary across objects – and that passion involves one’s self-identity. We then take a deeper dive into the different objects that may serve as the target of one’s passion. There are a variety of different objects that can be the focus of an entrepreneur’s passion, from a specific career path or occupational identity (e.g., nurse, entrepreneur), specific sub-roles related to core activities of that identity (e.g., inventing, founding, developing), specific activities themselves (e.g., bike riding), and more. We review the objects of entrepreneurial passion that have been discussed, and reflect on how, despite the sometimes casual usage of the term “passion” in the literature, mainstream theories of passion argue that the object of an entrepreneur’s passion must be something that is important and central to the identity of the entrepreneur.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 4 we focus on the outcomes of entrepreneurial passion in terms of both profits and perils that can result from it. These profits and perils depend both on the type of passion the entrepreneur experiences (e.g., obsessive or harmonious) as well as the extent of that passion (e.g., how passionate they are about being an entrepreneur), and the targets of that passion (e.g., passion for inventing new products vs. passion for founding a new firm). As part of that discussion we incorporate not only the entrepreneur’s experience of passion but also how the passion they display to entrepreneurial stakeholders can lead to both productive and unproductive outcomes. We make important recommendations for how we should carry the study of potential profits and perils of both experienced and displayed passion forward in more conceptually and empirically precise ways.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

We focus Chapter 5 on the antecedents of passion and how we can ignite the fires of passion or stoke its heat through engagement, education, and contagion from other people. Some people develop passion by focusing intently on crafting their particular product or service, which often leads to a desire to share that passion with their broader community through entrepreneurship. Others develop passion through formal education or accelerator programs, while still other entrepreneurs develop passion through contagion processes. In this chapter we discuss all three mechanisms through which passion might be sparked, and discuss how we can help potential entrepreneurs develop their passion and knowledge of entrepreneurship to promote successful outcomes.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 6 we discuss how entrepreneurial passion within teams of founders operates quite differently than for solo entrepreneurs. This is important given that teams found over half of all new ventures (Kamm, et al., 1990; Klotz, et al., 2014). Passion in teams is fundamentally different than individual-level passions. Team passion can be conceptualized and studied in a myriad of ways, including looking at the homogeneity and heterogeneity of individual passions, or analyzing group-level collective emotions for shared identities (team passions) team members experience together (Cardon, et al., 2017c). We review the very few studies that have been conducted to date concerning how passion operates within teams, and discuss several areas ripe for additional research.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 7 we explore novel areas of study related to entrepreneurial passion that have received little or no attention to date in the literature. As part of this discussion, we explore contemporary and new methodologies that may help facilitate investigation into the phenomenon of passion, and offer important and, in some cases, provocative recommendations for best practices in pursuing these and other future research questions about entrepreneurial passion.

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Melissa S. Cardon and Charles Y. Murnieks

In Chapter 8 we briefly share our concluding thoughts on the stream of research to date on entrepreneurial passion, and our hopes for the next generation of work.