Turkey faces the many challenges of managing the intake of an unprecedented number of refugees, and feels the ramifications of the Syrian crisis the most. As the human tragedy of refugees fleeing their war-torn country unfolded, the need for viable cooperation between Turkey as a candidate country and the EU has proven to be vital in overcoming a common challenge, resulting in the reutilization of the Readmission Agreement and a congruent Joint Action Plan. Hence, this chapter undertakes an investigation of how this partnership was framed in the Turkish political scene in the nexus of the oscillating path of Turkey’s accession process and the gravest humanitarian crisis of our times. In this context, parliamentary representation presents itself as an inclusive site wherein a plethora of political viewpoints find expression in deliberating key policies. The analysis suggests that there has been a general tendency of skepticism towards the EU in the Turkish political discourse, and a concomitant expectation of a more committed involvement in the refugee issue, which is increasingly framed in a security narrative.
Ipek Demirsu and Meltem Müftüler-Baç
Kolja Raube, Jan Wouters and Meltem Müftüler-Baç
In today’s increasingly complex and interdependent world, the role of parliaments remains a relatively understudied research topic. The multiple patterns of global governance are mostly dominated by the executive branches of government, with parliaments remaining on the sidelines. Anne-Marie Slaughter in her work A New World Order (2004) described the global order as a network of transgovernmental network relations. At the same time, she noted the role of parliaments in networked globalism. Her analysis concluded that parliaments lack the ability and interest to network with other parliaments in the world, and essentially run behind the advanced governmental interplays that effectively shape global governance. Through the prism of current research on parliamentary cooperation in the European Union (EU), the present volume aims to revisit Slaughter’s perspective (see also Janeia 2015). At the same time, this volume obviously adds to the literature of European foreign policy, which so far has treated parliamentary activity and relations in the EU’s external relations rather as an afterthought. Only lately has attention shifted towards an increased role of the European Parliament (EP) and national parliaments, especially with regard to international agreements and trade policy (Rippoll Servent 2014; Rosen and Raube 2018; Wouters and Raube 2018; Woolcock 2012). Research on parliamentary cooperation shows the increasing networking of parliaments not only in the EU (Crum and Fossum 2009; Lupo and Fassone 2016) but also between the EU and actors outside the EU (see Costa and Dri 2014; Jan_i_ and Stavridis 2016). This volume also focuses on comparative examples of parliamentary cooperation of actors and organizations outside the EU. Overall, it not only sheds light on EU parliamentary cooperation, but also on the scope and role of parliamentary networks in an increasingly interdependent world. As such it aims to make a contribution to both the global governance and EU external relations discourses by highlighting the role of parliaments.
Kolja Raube, Meltem Müftüler-Baç and Jan Wouters
While parliamentary cooperation and diplomacy are topics that have not traditionally garnered significant research attention, the rising influence of parliaments in external relations and the increasing importance of inter-parliamentary cooperation has resulted in a greater focus on this subject in recent years. In the European Union in particular, the European Parliament has had a greater effect on EU foreign relations since the Treaty of Lisbon, which has spurred a new body of research in this area. Within this new research environment, two primary dimensions have emerged: the cooperation of national and supranational parliaments in international and supranational organizations; and the role of parliaments in foreign policy and external relations towards third countries. Both of these dimensions are discussed in depth in this edited volume. This chapter provides concluding remarks on the findings of the volume’s contributors.