In chapter 3, Michael Dillon examines Chinese Muslims with emphasis on Hui in northwestern China in general and in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in particular. He begins with a short discussion of the languages and cultures of the Chinese Muslims. He then outlines the origins and development of the Hui and Chinese Islam since the Tang Dynasty (618–906). Next, Dillon mentions how Chinese Muslims have done in the PRC before he discusses the Hui in Ningxia, which he calls the titular homeland of Chinese Muslims.
In chapter 4, Michael Dillon first outlines Xinjiang’s geographical position before discussing various aspects of Uyghur culture including language, mosques, and mazars. He then examines the relationship between the Chinese government and Uyghurs in Xinjiang, which is marked by demonstrations, violence, and resistance in the post-1990 era. The CCP has developed various polices and set up the religious affairs bureau, and the training of ‘patriotic religious personnel’ to maintain control in Xinjiang. It has also promoted economic development in the region. However, ethnic violence has not been abated because government responses have been simplistic and thus less than effective.