The energy revolution is transforming many nations’ dependence on fuels and imports, but not necessarily in ways that would increase energy security. Wind and solar produce electricity, which relatively few nations import, although they do sometimes displace coal and nuclear power. The latter two, however, have not typically been considered vulnerable. And the increased use of natural gas to offset unreliable renewables means that some countries will actually become more dependent on foreign supplies. However, only a few countries in Europe are heavily dependent on one or two suppliers. And the shale revolution could eventually mean that many smaller countries can reduce oil and gas imports, enhancing their energy security. At present, the boom in U.S. shale gas production has increased supply on the international market and allowed at least some diversification for importers.