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Michael R. Manning and Melissa Norcross

The authors’ Mads, Glads, and Sads exercise was originally designed as one aspect of large scale change initiatives, which focused on getting the whole system in the room to engage in system-wide action planning. The exercise creates the context for groups of all sizes to reflect on their personal organizing experiences – both emotionally as well as cognitively – so that participant engagement and commitment to change is enhanced.

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Mary M. Nash, Michael R. Manning and E. John Heiser

The authors present a method for SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) based on Lewinian theory and practice. The methodology may be useful for leaders, members, and stakeholders of organizations involved in strategic planning processes, as well as facilitators (internal or external) of such initiatives. The methodology will also prove useful while planning for change: the outcome can inform preparations for change, and is beneficial to revisit during the implementation of organization change.

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Michael Manning, Jill L. Tao and Jae-in Noh

South Korea has only recently begun to explore alternatives to an industrial model of development or Industry 4.0. This transition can be seen in South Korea’s new cities, where smart city infrastructure is incorporated into new development and has meant using the power of the state to increase the efficiency of infrastructure, so that urban areas are now places where ‘smart’ and ‘green’ can be married through improved technology and subsidised planning. In a unitary system, one expects national policy to dictate local policy. But is this so? We investigate by comparing conceptions of ‘green’ and in the smart city of Songdo. We find a gap between what ordinary citizens expect and what the national government provides as defining characteristics of ‘green’ policies and the impact this has on what it means to be a ‘smart city’ in South Korea, highlighting the problem of policy distance in a unitary context.