This chapter raises some central questions about the relationship between EU trade policy and ‘European Foreign Policy’, in the context of recent calls for ‘joined-up policy-making’ in the EU’s Global Strategy Paper and of recent literature in the field. In particular, it explores the forces tending towards convergence between trade policy and foreign policy in the EU, and those tending towards continuing divergence or parallelism, by assessing a number of key issues and relationships in EU external action. By focusing first on pressures for convergence and divergence, then on key issues and finally on key relationships, the chapter provides a framework for the evaluation of current and recent EU policies, and for an assessment of the potential interaction between trade policy and foreign policy in future EU external action.
Michael Cardwell and Fiona Smith
Michael D. Smith and Alejandro Zentner
Researchers from multiple disciplines, including economics, marketing, information systems, operations research, and computer science, have contributed to the academic literature on how the Internet has affected retail markets. In this chapter, we build bridges across these various disciplines to provide a common understanding of how the Internet has affected retail markets and to identify important areas for future research.
Aaron Smith-Walter and Michael D. Jones
In an influential article published in the American Political Science Review in December 1970, Giovanni Sartori observed that political scientists were uncritically applying categories developed in one context to those of another. Sartori argued that this practice of conceptual stretching was leading to concepts being applied to political systems where the fit was inappropriate, leading to findings so obvious as to defy utility. Many scholars argue that conceptual stretching continues to be a problem for the study of public policy today. This chapter argues that the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) provides comparative public policy scholars an approach capable of addressing the problem Sartori identified. To make this case the authors first detail the theoretical and conceptual scaffolding of the NPF. Next, they explore the universal nature of narrative in human cognition and communication by examining narrative rationality, narrative persuasion, and narrative’s relationship to behaviour. They then discuss the NPF’s potential application in comparative public policy analyses. The authors argue that the NPF’s epistemological and methodological flexibility, in addition to its ability to move up and down levels of abstraction, make it a desirable framework to apply in comparative public policy. The chapter closes by reviewing extant NPF comparative scholarship and speaking to some of the limitations the framework may have in comparative analyses.