The Blood case concerns access to health care and health services, in relation to assisted reproductive technology. It raises ethical and legal questions around the right to bodily integrity, the right to family life and the right to health within the framework of the European Union. Mrs. Diane Blood married her husband, Stephen, in 1991, according to the rites of the Anglican Church. In 1994, Mrs. Blood and her husband commenced plans to start a family. Soon after, Mr. Blood contracted meningitis. In March 1995, while her husband was in a comatose state, Mrs. Blood asked the doctors to take samples of Mr. Blood’s sperm. After his death, Mrs. Blood commenced a legal battle to use these samples, entrusted in the care of the Infertility Research Trust (IRT), so as to bear her late husband’s child. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 prohibited the storage or use of gametes without the clear written consent of the gamete provider. In the case at hand, Mr. Blood had never signed this document. As a result, the authorities (HFEA) could not allow Mrs. Blood to undergo assisted reproductive treatment in the United Kingdom. The question, therefore, was whether the HFEA would authorise the release of the sperm abroad for treatment in another EU country. Mrs. Blood requested that the sperm be exported to Belgium, where she could obtain treatment under Belgian law. Nevertheless, the authorization was not granted. In response, Mrs. Blood filed an application for judicial review.
Elsa Supiot and Michael Wells-Greco
Hamish Coates, S. Umesha Weerakkody, Emeline Jerez, Michael Wells and Stefan Popenici
People seek to engage in higher education in ways that will help them to succeed. This means that they need to know what opportunities are available for them, and that education services align with and realize their ambitions. In turn, this means that relevant and sound reports of information about higher education are emerging as a lynchpin for success. This chapter examines how the changing political economy of higher education is shaping new approaches to quality and placing greater value than ever before on student success. It analyses changing supply and demand dynamics, which spur the need for new kinds of reports. It closes by looking at prospects for guiding the required innovation.