This chapter critically analyses the EU’s use of targeted sanctions, addressing the question of how the EU’s sanctions policy discourse should be understood and what implications the EU sanctions may have on the international arena. It analyses both the opportunities in using sanctions for security policy purposes and the tensions that the use of this instrument can entail. The chapter seeks not only to place the EU in a global security context, but also to present the policy aims of EU sanctions, including theoretical and practical challenges. For this, the EU’s ongoing sanctions regimes are presented in detail, and the EU’s sanctions on Russia are discussed in depth. The chapter ends with a discussion of how sanctions can be understood in a geo-economic perspective, and how they can contribute to the EU’s security.