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Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice J. Kang and Miki Caul Kittilson

Women hold more seats on high courts around the world than ever, but their appointment has been faster in some regions of the world than in others. In general, the literature has explained the number of women on a court as a function of institutions or pipelines. The study of institutions has emphasized the importance of civil or common law systems, how judges are selected (including whether merit commissions advantage women), selector ideology, and whether subjecting selectors to elections matters for women’s appointment. Pipeline explanations have highlighted the importance of having a sufficient number of women with necessary career and educational experience. We conclude by highlighting the connection between these two literatures and pointing toward important avenues for future research.