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Knut Bjørn Stokke and Morten Clemetsen

The aim of this chapter is to discuss experiences with spatial planning across protected area borders in order to facilitate nature-based tourism in a sustainable way, in relation to the environment and the affected communities. We have studied three different Norwegian national parks, including adjacent landscapes and communities. The results are discussed in the light of similar European experiences. The study reveals a rather limited level of integrated planning practices across protected area borders. New trends related to delegation of management responsibility of protected areas, introduction of branding and visitor strategies for national parks, and the emergence of regional parks have only to a limited extent improved integrated planning in order to facilitate nature-based tourism and community development. The most promising trend is the interest in regional parks observed in many Norwegian municipalities, which is inspired by European regional nature parks, particularly the Swiss model.

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Morten Clemetsen and Knut Bjørn Stokke

The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate a democratic aspect of planning and management in protected and other designated landscapes with a multitude of boundaries and legal frameworks, and highlight the importance of integration actors. In a situation with fragmented institutions, where the actors have different positions and power, the chapter claims that it is of fundamental importance to create a common arena that contributes to seeing the landscape in an integrated way, and not being limited to the complexity of boundaries and singular fields of authority. Based on a study of Nærøyfjorden, Norway, integration actors are seen to play a fundamental role in bringing the different stakeholders and authorities together to find and implement positive solutions/measures to experienced problems at the local community level. The chapter identifies and discusses three major capacities constituting the integration actor: integrity, professional capacity and trust.

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Morten Clemetsen, Knut Bjørn Stokke, Jorunn Barane and Thomas Haraldseid

Peripheral municipalities are struggling with keeping communities and local economy at a viable level. At the same time, it is a paradox that in many regions such communities are highly attractive as tourist destinations. Studies from two Norwegian case-areas indicates that strategies for social and cultural entrepreneurship, may support community inspiration, optimism and creativity. This chapter has primarily a conceptual focus, aiming at exploring potential synergies of social interaction between residents and visitors in development of nature-based tourism. Based on literature and the empirical outcome from two workshops in Varanger and Trysil, we suggest that changing the tourism sector’s perspective from “destination” to “place” may support social resilience in a long-term sustainability perspective.

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Knut Bjørn Stokke, Morten Clemetsen, Øystein Aas, Thrond O. Haugen, Stian Stensland and Thomas Haraldseid

This chapter assesses natural and cultural resources in development of nature-based tourism, by applying two different analytical frameworks: social-ecological systems (SES) and landscape resource analysis (LRA) in two case areas in Norway (birdwatching in Varanger, angling in Trysil). Analyses based on the SES framework have its strength in showing the central links and challenges among ecological, social and governance components when utilizing resources in nature-based tourism. LRA relies on qualitative data and local knowledge, particularly through sense of place analyses based on workshops with local participants. Applied to two case studies, the two analytical frameworks contribute to better understand and utilize resources in more sustainable ways in nature-based tourism. They also show how natural and cultural resources may supplement each other in these contexts. In order to link natural and cultural resources, in-depth knowledge about local relations to nature is necessary.