This chapter explores the antecedents to colonization and empire, central to the story of Britain’s relationship with Africa from the first century to the mid-twentieth century. The earliest relationships with Africa emerge from encounters between the British Isles and the foreign powers that invaded them: the Romans, Vikings and Normans. Further, how these foreign powers (as crown/state) administered the British Isles had an enduring influence on the character of British venturing and colonizastion. Moreover, on-going rivalries with European nations further shaped Britain’s crown/state policy towards trade, then imperialism, in Africa. Commercial venturing, and eventually military expedition-based venturing companies, were key to the Britain’s economic colonial and economic presence in Africa. We therefore explore the role of crown/state sponsorship of merchants and venturers. This evolution and dynamics of encounters between Britain and Africa can be captured theoretically through Michel Foucault’s concept of the heterotopia. As a final counter point to the often positive mid-twentieth accounts of the legacies of colonialism, the losses, from the perspective of Africans, is understood through Amartya Sen’s historical analysis of the contemporaneous and enduring negative impacts of colonialism.
Nelarine Cornelius, Eric Pezet, Ramin Mahmoudi and Dima Ramez Murtada
Isabel Metz, Eddy S. Ng, Nelarine Cornelius, Jenny M. Hoobler and Stella Nkomo
This chapter assesses the adoption and implementation of multiculturalism across Australia, Canada, the UK, the US and South Africa (the “Anglo bloc”), all of which receive a large number of immigrants. Australia and Canada espouse an official multiculturalism policy, and encourage their citizens and immigrants to adopt each other’s culture. The US does not have an official multiculturalism policy and follows an assimilation approach (“melting pot”) to immigration acculturation, but implements affirmative action to support racial minorities in education and employment. The UK and South Africa also do not have an official multiculturalism policy. They fall somewhere between Australia/Canada and the US on the immigrant acculturation continuum. The UK is heavily influenced by EU directives, and has strong anti-discrimination laws to compensate for a lack of multiculturalism policy. South Africa is a special case, where blacks are indigenous rather than immigrants. It has strong affirmative action policies, but they do not apply to those who attain citizenship after 1984. The emphasis is on the economic empowerment of previously disadvantaged groups. The chapter also updates the 2010 Multiculturalism Policy Index (MPI) with data from South Africa.