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Nick Vink, Gavin Williams and Johann Kirsten

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Entrepreneurship and deprived urban areas: understanding activity and the hidden enterprise culture

Towards an Understanding of the Economies of Neighbourhoods and Communities

Nick Williams and Colin Williams

The aim of the chapter is to evaluate how entrepreneurial activity is influenced by the individual and area characteristics through a focus on deprived residential urban areas. Although barriers commonly associated with entrepreneurship are not exclusively faced by entrepreneurs in deprived areas, they are likely to be more acute than in relatively affluent areas. We demonstrate the importance of understanding the socio-spatial contingency of entrepreneurship, meaning that entrepreneurial activity is influenced by the social and spatial context in which it occurs. Often entrepreneurial activity in deprived urban areas will be small in scale, with individuals entering trades with low entry barriers and with finite and highly localised demand. This presents a challenge for policymakers as supporting these businesses may simply result in other existing businesses which are not supported failing, resulting in no net gain for the area. In addition, despite the numerous barriers to entrepreneurship present in deprived areas, they do not lack entrepreneurial activity per se. Instead, the chapter shows that a ‘hidden enterprise culture’ exists, with entrepreneurs in deprived areas more likely to engage in entrepreneurship in the informal economy, which we define as activities that are legitimate in all respects besides the fact that they are unregistered by, or hidden from, the state for tax or benefits purposes. The chapter concludes by providing a number of policy implications for fostering entrepreneurship in deprived urban areas.

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Creating Resilient Economies

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Edited by Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

Providing a coherent and clear narrative, Creating Resilient Economies offers a theoretical analysis of resilience and provides guidance to policymakers with regards to fostering more resilient economies and people. It adeptly illustrates how resilience thinking can offer the opportunity to re-frame economic development policy and practice and provides a clear evidence base of the cultural, economic, political and social conditions that shape the adaptability, flexibility and responsiveness to crises in their many forms.
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Foreword

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Edited by Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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Introduction

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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The resilience of entrepreneurs and small businesses in the depths of a recessionary crisis

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

This chapter examines how changes to the institutional environment in a crisis-hit economy impact on entrepreneurial activity. Drawing on in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs in Greece, the findings suggest that changes to institutions have served to limit entrepreneurial activity rather than enhance it, and that this has worsened in the midst of the crisis. We argue that this will detrimentally impact Greece’s ability to navigate out of the crisis and regain competitiveness in the longer term. The chapter provides a number of theoretical and policy implications that are focused on improving institutional environments so that entrepreneurship can play an appropriate role in recovering from economic crises.

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Final thoughts and reflections

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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References

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Edited by Nick Williams and Tim Vorley