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Nicos Komninos and Anastasia Panori

Smart cities offer a suitable environment for the creation of smart ecosystems by gathering organizations over digital platforms. Smart ecosystems produce externalities similar to spatial agglomerations, and act as environments of intelligence and problem-solving. This chapter identifies a four-layer structure of city intelligence that is generated in smart cities: (i) human intelligence encompassing human abilities and social interaction; (ii) artificial intelligence working complementary to human capabilities, encompassing data collection, mining and analytics; (iii) collective intelligence generated through user engagement and the population of digital spaces; and (iv) collaborative intelligence referring to open innovation, co-creation and co-design in institutions and systems of innovation. Smart cities develop a connected intelligence space, including dimensions of ‘human ability’, ‘artificial modelling’, ‘collectiveness’ and ‘collaboration’. Significant forces that act as connectors in this approach are awareness, collaboration, and positive externalities. Within smart city environments, organizations instead of being part of an established ecosystem have the capacity to build their own smart ecosystem on physical, institutional and digital spaces.

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Smart Cities in the Post-algorithmic Era

Integrating Technologies, Platforms and Governance

Edited by Nicos Komninos and Christina Kakderi

Examining the changing nature of cities in the face of smart technology, this book studies key new challenges and capabilities defined by the Internet of Things, data science, blockchain and artificial intelligence. It argues that using algorithmic logic alone for automation and optimisation in modern smart cities is not sufficient, and analyses the importance of integrating this with strong participatory governance and digital platforms for community action.
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Nicos Komninos, Anastasia Panori and Christina Kakderi

Smart cities emerge from collaboration technologies (IoT, social media, blockchain), data science and AI. The algorithmic logic, under which these technologies operate, can be much more effective if combined with other sources of intelligence available in cities, such as human intelligence, creativity and innovation, collective and collaborative intelligence within institutions or over platforms. Along this line of thought, the first part of the book brings together authors that discuss the academic establishment of the smart city paradigm as outcome of collaborative endeavour rather than algorithms and automation. The second part focuses on major technologies that allow collaborative initiatives to develop at large scale. Smart cities are a technological construct driven by information technologies and embedded smart objects, but also a complex cyber-physical system in which cities, knowledge processes, and digital technologies are blended to generate new solutions. The third part of the book looks into the governance of smart cities, and mainly how technologies and digital platforms allow for citizen engagement and the setting of collaboration networks that generate innovations for better cities.

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Margarita Angeliidou, Nicos Komninos, Xavier Leal, Isidoros Passas, Maria S. Schoina and Elena Sefertzi

The present chapter explores the potential contribution of Communities of Interest (CoI) to the commercialization of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) products and services. CoI may be local, global or glocal. They refer to networks of people that share a common interest in certain topics or objectives and a common goal to advance these objectives through communication, exchange of ideas and collaboration. This chapter is based on findings of the European Community (EC) FP7 research project entitled ‘Enhancing the transfer of Intelligent Transportation System innovations to the market’ (T-TRANS), coordinated by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and comprises four sections. The introduction provides the necessary background information as well as a better understanding of CoI. In sections 2, 3 and 4 the landscape of innovative ITS products and services is analysed, and selected case studies and commercialization routes of ITS products and services in Greece are presented. Finally the conclusion discusses the way to accelerate commercialization of state-of-the-art ITS products and services through CoI, including a roadmap for the successful launch of new ITS products and services to potential markets.