The current crisis of trust in official institutions raises a question on how individual political leaders are capable to manage regions in interaction with other stakeholders and not to lose their trust. Thus, in our research, we concentrate on how we can conceptualize formal and informal structures and their leadership together with producing public services and policy-making. We collected data from the implementation of the Integrated Urban Development Plans in the Czech Republic and Spain to analyse interactions among formal and informal leaders in the co-creation and co-production of public services. Our results show that the form of collaboration among stakeholders is highly individualised. Without a willingness to collaborate, formal leadership based on political power limits co-production and co-creation. On the other side, informal leadership in the shape of voluntary civic engagement by individuals and through partnerships appears together with strong interests or urgent issues.