Chapter 6 reviews the scholarly literature on ‘Asia_West’ and ‘intra-Asia’ marriages and studies of foreign-related marriages in China. It then analyses how Chinese_foreign marriages started to ‘resurrect’ thanks to China’s economic liberation and legal reforms in the late 1970s. The early transitional period paralleled official recognition of, and public reservation against, Chinese_foreign marriages, especially marriages involving foreign nationals. The 1990s witnessed China’s changing attitudes towards cross-Strait relations, reflecting in the proliferation of cross-Strait marriages and the rising number of Chinese_foreign marriages overseas. China’s increasing globalization in the 2000s triggered the growth in the number of foreign spouses and internationalized marriages in China, giving rise to gendered discourses and binary constructions in relation to foreign spouses of Chinese in the media. Wang concludes by summarizing the changing character of foreign-related marriages in different historical periods and argues that these marriages have begun to shape and complicate the overarching marriage landscape in China in this century.
Yi Pan and Ziyu Wang
The rapid economic growth along with high inequality has changed the principal social contradiction within China, which has been interpreted by the Chinese Communist Party in 2017 as the contradiction between the inadequate development and the ever-growing needs of the people for a better life in this ‘new era’. The response to this contradiction is to complete building a comprehensive welfare system. After presenting the development of the Chinese welfare system marked by four turning points, this chapter addresses the outcomes and problems in the ongoing reform efforts in terms of expanding and integrating social insurances and expanding the social services. The chapter also explores the moderate universalism welfare principle, which guides the current reform, and its historical, political and cultural roots. In the discussion of international social policy, the authors refer to China’s position in building a community with a shared future for humanity against the background of globalization.